Paper Stock Grades, Finish and Weight FAQ

What is the difference between Text, Book, Bond, Offset, Cover, Bristol, Index, Tag, and Card paper?
Paper can be grouped into two main grades based on weight and thickness: Text and Cover.

"Text" is a generic name for a variety of lighter, thinner paper stocks that includes Book, Bond, Writing, Ledger, Offset paper. Text paper is flexible, can be easily rolled and folded and is used for printing flyers, handouts, letterheads, book pages, etc. The paper used in ink jet printers would be considered Text.

"Cover" is a generic name for a variety of heavier and thicker paper stocks that includes Bristol, Index, Tag, and Card paper. It is more durable than Text paper. Cover paper is more rigid and must be scored (i.e., dented or creased) before it can be folded. This type of paper is usually smooth, but can have a texture. It can have either a matte or glossy appearance. Cover/Card stock is often used for mass mailed postcards, business cards, playing cards, invitations, program covers, greeting cards, door hangers, catalogue covers, presentation covers, scrapbooking, etc. At its heaviest, Card stock would be similar to material used for a cereal box.

What's the difference between lb, #, gsm, g/m2 and g/m2?
Besides a generic "Text" weight or "Cover" weight, descriptions often include a number to refer to the weight of the paper. The higher the number, the heavier the paper. Heavier paper is typically thicker as well.

There are two systems for indicating the weight of paper; an international metric system and a North American system. The North American system for paper weight uses pounds (expressed as either # or lb) while the metric system uses grams per square meter (gsm or g/m2 or g/m2), often called "grammage". The North American pound rating is based on the weight of 500 sheets (a.k.a. a ream), while the metric rating is based on the weight of a 1 meter by 1 meter sheet.

The U.S. system is a bit confusing because the same pound number can be used for both lighter (Text) paper and heavier (Cover) paper. For example, 80# Text paper and 80# Cover paper have the same pound number even though the Cover stock is almost twice as heavy! The metric system in comparison is more straight forward. For example, 80# Text Paper weighs 104 g/m2 while 80# Cover Stock weighs 218 g/m2. The Cover stock is clearly more than twice as heavy as the Text stock.

The reason actual weight of Text and Cover stock of the same pound rating will be different is due to the way the pound rating is determined. Both use the weight of 500 sheets for the pound rating, but they use a different size sheet. For Text stock, 500 sheets measuring 25" x 38" are used. While for Cover stock, 500 sheets measuring 20" x 26" sheets are used instead.

Sometimes I see "10 pt" or "12 pt" paper stock listed. Is this a paper weight?
Sometimes the thickness of Cover/Card stock is used instead of its weight. In North America, paper thickness can be displayed in points (1/1000" or .001"). For example, a 10 pt. Card stock is 0.010" thick (about the weight of a 140lb Index stock) while 12 pt. Card stock is 0.012" thick (about the weight of a 100lb Cover stock).

Paper Weight Comparison Chart (lightest to heaviest)
#'s gsm Paper Stock
16lb 60.2 g/m2 Bond/Writing/Ledger
40lb 60.2 g/m2 Book/Text/Offset
20lb 75.2 g/m2 Bond/Writing/Ledger
50lb 75.2 g/m2 Book/Text/Offset
24lb 90.3 g/m2 Bond/Writing/Ledger
60lb 90.3 g/m2 Book/Text/Offset
80lb 104 g/m2 Book/Text/Offset
28lb 105.4 g/m2 Bond/Writing/Ledger
70lb 105.4 g/m2 Book/Text/Offset
40lb 109.1 g/m2 Cover
50lb 135.5 g/m2 Cover
60lb 161.8 g/m2 Cover
100lb 161.8 g/m2 Tag
90lb 161.8 g/m2 Index
65lb 176.8 g/m2 Cover
110lb 199.4 g/m2 Index
80lb 218.2 g/m2 Cover
90lb 244.6 g/m2 Cover
140lb 252.1 g/m2 Index
100lb 270.9 g/m2 Cover
170lb 308.5 g/m2 Index
220lb 385.1 g/m2 Index